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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

538                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
of tyrannies will be manifested in its attempts at self-preser-
vation.    *
Of the laws in free communities, where the government
does not fear the people, little need be said. As the people
either control or essentially check the government, there is
no fear, no diversity of interests, no perpetual opposition
expressed by the laws. The dangers here are a want of
vigor in executing the laws, and a want of steadiness and
uniformity in policy.
It may be questioned whether there is any invariable ten-
Relation of differ- dencv in the nature of a polity to encourage in-
ent polities  to   the                J                                                     *           J                               &
useful and fine arts, ventions and the fine arts. As for the practical
arts and inventive genius, we may affirm that they find their
best field under free institutions. For, with the increase of the
freedom of intellectual movement, the consciousness of strength
and the power to overcome obstacles are increased, and hope
of success is stimulated by the practical knowledge laid up
within the community and accessible to all. The history of
inventions seems to verify this remark. Many of them and
minor improvements in them have proceeded from men with-
out education, who have thoughts which they strive to realize,
and who train themselves upward by correcting their errors.
This they can do where free institutions cultivate enterprise
and place the means of improvement within the reach of the
laboring classes. The spinning-jenny, for instance; and in
this country the cotton-gin, invented by a young man without
experience, just out of college ; the vulcanizing of India.rub-
ber ; many improvements in printing-presses; some of the
application of steam as a motive power, show what the com-
paratively untrained can do in countries where hope and
energy are stimulated, and the means of knowledge are within
the reach of all.
With regard to collections in science and the arts, the case
is somewhat different. The most despotic governments can
offer places and support to men of special gifts; they can
found libraries and museums at their capitals, and outbid